D-amino acids in diseases

Chronic kidney disease: D-amino acids have been proposed as potential biomarkers in kidney disease

Immune system: D-amino acids modulate innate immune response

D-serine:

Over- or down-stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) is related to psychiatric disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) and acute and chronic degenerative disorders (e.g., Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), stroke, epilepsy, and peripheral neuropathies). D-Serine and glutamate are supposed to represent a link between neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity. D-serine is involved in the following pathological states:

–  Schizophrenia: hypofunction of NMDAR because of D-serine decrease

Familial ALS (fALS): the R199W DAAO variant is responsible of motoneurons death induced by excitotoxicity

Alzheimer’s disease (AD):β-amyloid induces SR expression and D-Ser release

Addiction: decrease in D-serine level in nucleo accumbens abstinence following cocaine treatment

Neuropathic pain: inhibition of DAAO (and hydrogen peroxide production) gives and analgesic effect in neuropathic pain and bone cancer

Chronic kidney disease: D-amino acids have been proposed as potential biomarkers in kidney disease

With the contribution of